Research Projects in XCOM 2 can be done by Scientists inside the Avenger. The Projects improve aspects of your ships, improve the quality of Weapons and Armor and generally make you more powerful. In addition to providing improved equipment and items, completed research projects can unlock brand new research projects for undertaking. As a result, many research projects have a requirement that must be met before they are available to be researched such as a specific completed project or the construction of one of the Facilities in the Avenger. Generally, completing Missions will earn you Items that can be used to fund the research project.
The Alien Biotech project is the intial project available after completing the beginning mission and the numerous projects it unlocks form the initial diverse branching paths that most of the subsequent projects fall on. ADVENT Officer Autopsy is also a similar linchpin for advanced projects.
Resultant items created such as Utility Items, Armor and Weapons must then be constructed in the Armory for a production cost before equipping on your soldiers.
Below is a table of Research Projects, their costs in Resources and Items and time to complete, along with their effects. Please note that costs change depending on the difficulty setting of the game. For Engineering Projects, see the Proving Ground page. See the Shadow Chamber for a list of the special projects undertaken in that Facility.